Life-long medical treatment may alleviate some signs. This can lead to increased risk of infection, erosion of the surface layer of the cornea and ulceration (where deeper layers of the eyeball are eroded too (Startup 1984, Renwick 1996).Some strains of Pekingese are more vulnerable to corneal damage because of inherited corneal insensitivity, which makes them less responsive to irritants that may cause damage the surface of the eye, eg which otherwise would be washed away by blinking and/or tear production (Startup 1984). Available from: www.hungarovet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/.../chronic-tearstaining.pdf. In this condition, the hairs of nasal skin folds come in direct contact (which can be constant) with the cornea of the eye. Comparing a brachycephalic breed  (Figure 1) with a mesocephalic (or non-brachcephalic) breed further illustrates the differences in skull conformation and highlights the shortened muzzle and excess soft tissue, leading to skin folds, in brachycephalic breeds. www.pekingeseclub.org Similar characteristics are shown, to varying degrees, by all brachycephalic breeds. For some individuals both of these are difficult and distressing. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca: Commonly called “dry eye”, this Pekingese eye problem results from an inadequate production of tears. These signs of pain are particularly noticeable when the cornea is ulcerated (Renwick 1996). Saunders: Philadelphia. Blindness significantly affects a dog’s quality of life. When you think of the Pekingese, the image of Cartman from South Par… Special care must be taken to prevent and treat corneal abrasions. The Pekingese is a toy breed that is believed to have originated in China, though their true origin is unknown. Signs shown by a dog with eyeball prolapse include: severe distress, the eye being positioned abnormally forward and being, swollen and congested (red). Canine Inherited Disorders Database (2004) What is exposure keratopathy syndrome? Animal Anatomical Memoirs No 19, The Wistar Institute. The brachycephalic skull is characterised by its shortening, particularly of the muzzle, and shallow eye sockets and deformed jaw. The Kennel Club instigated a ‘breed watch’ for prominent eyes with incomplete blink (UK Kennel Club 2010). Epiphora has two main causes: (i) kinking of the tear duct due to the excessive skin folding resulting from the short facial bones but normal length soft tissues), and (ii) blocking of the puncta by the large, protruding eye. The Pekingese, like some other breeds (including English bulldog, Pug and Shih Tzu) have an extreme form of brachycephaly which makes for more severe problems. Figure 5. Without treatment, the various conditions, outlined above, that make up brachycephalic ocular syndrome, lead to irritation of the cornea and surrounding tissues causing constant discomfort, pain and possibly blindness. Examination of any puppy prior to purchase is essential, along with its dam and sire. Epiphora or eye discharge is a common dog eye problem which targets specific breeds such as Poodles, Maltese dogs or Pekingese. Long-term damage to the cornea causes ulcerations (considered to cause significant pain (Renwick 1996), scarring, pigmentation and blindness and occasionally, to rupture of the eye. In affected animals this drainage is disrupted. Available from http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/ocular%20disorders/exposure%20keratopathy%20syndrome.htm. The head is massive and broad with a flat face, black nose and lips, and dark eyes. 4th Ed. Such anatomical abnormalities make brachycephalic breeds very prone to eye problems causing pain and chronic discomfort. She seems to be struggling to keep her eye wide open. Figure 9. Entropion is the inward rotation of the eyelid, and in this case the side of the lower eyelid nearest the nose rotates inwards causing the hairs from the face to constantly rubbing on the cornea (the clear surface of the eye) which may lead to pigmentation or ulceration of the cornea (see pigmentary keratitis below).This is commonin Pekingese (Renwick 2007). Prolapse of the eyeball is a veterinary emergency which can lead to blindness. Living Conditions. Dogs showing any signs of brachycephalic ocular syndrome, or whose parents have any signs or have had surgical procedures or medical treatments to alleviate the condition should not be purchased (because if there is, instead, a demand for unaffected animals, the population will soon be comprised of healthier relatives less at risk of these chronic and serious painful conditions). Stockman (1983) suggested that trichiasis (see above) is seen more frequently in Pekingese than in other breeds. Due to the prevalence of these three eye conditions in Siberian Huskies, breed registries have been developed specifically to confirm that breeding dogs have had recent eye exams. Opinions differ as to whether it is ethically acceptable to breed animals whose welfare is likely to be compromised. I did not have any problems with her eye until.... just right now. Some dogs may be blind by 5 years of age (McCalla, no date). Breathing problems and heart problems are also common. Nasal fold trichiasis. The Pekingese can be a bit stubborn an While losing an eye isn’t life-threatening, it is a very scary thing for a pet lover (not to mention a pet) to experience. However, it is usually detected once more extensive when signs of blindness become apparent. Because it usually lacks blood vessels, when it is irritated it reacts differently to other tissues. In Practice 29: 256-271. Veterinary Record 124: 323-328, Crispin S (1993) The Pre-ocular Tear Film and Conditions of the Conjunctiva and Cornea. The soft tissues of the head show proportionally less shrinkage and this leads to an excess of skin on the nose which folds up and these folds often come in direct contact with the prominent eyes. The ears are shaped like hearts and lie against the head. Additionally, Pekingese pups are often delivered by cesarean section. The Pekingese, like some other brachycephalic breeds, has been selected for extreme exaggeration of this shape, with large, round eyes and lack of a muzzle and these features lead to the brachycephalic ocular syndrome. Carrington. Of the dog breeds, the Pekingese has an extreme brachycephalic head shape, with large, prominent eyes and almost complete lack of muzzle. Even the Peke’s own hair can be an irritant, and long hair should never be allowed to hang over his eyes. A Pekingese will greet you with dignity and pride. In one study, of eye prolapse cases, it was found that 50% were in brachycephalic breeds (Gelatt 2002). British Small Animal Veterinary Association: Cheltenham, pp137, Krohne S (2008) Medial canthus syndrome in dogs – chronic tearing, pigment, medial entropion and Trichiasis. As the Pekingese is defined by its brachycephalic head shape, all Pekinese are affected by the inherited defect which causes brachycephaly. As brachycephalic ocular syndrome is a consequence of the brachycephalic head shape, it seems unlikely that it will be possible to elimination the condition from Pekingese without changing the conformation of the breed (and their breed standard) significantly, although it may be possible to select for lines that are less severely affected. The American Kennel Club recognized the Pekingese in 1906, and the Pekingese Club of America was formed in 1909. The Pekingese, which has an average lifespan of 13 to 15 years, is prone to minor health problems like elongated soft palate, patellar luxation, stenotic nares, Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS), trichiasis, corneal abrasions, disticiasis, and skin fold dermatitis. If you’re thinking of getting a Pekingese, we’d recommend looking for one with a longer nose, wider nostrils and fewer face wrinkles. Diagnosis of the extent and severity of the abnormalities requires thorough examination of the eyes. The cornea of the eye – that is, its front surface - is normally clear. Then we have refractory ulcer that has a very poor healing process. Both syndromes are associated with eye problems, breathing problems, and … Brachycephalic ocular disease is the name given to a syndrome seen in brachycephelic animals that often combines lesions of the eyelid, conjunctiva (the tissues lining the eyeballs and eyelids) and cornea (the tissue forming the clear front surface to the eyeball) (Maggs et al 2008). Cream, black, white, tan, black and tan and occasionally 'blue' or slate grey have appeared in the breed. Distichiasis. Distichiasis is the condition in which eyelashes grow in the direction of the surface of the eye. Dogs which have shown any signs of brachycephalic ocular syndrome or have had corrective surgery for it should not be bred from. (Image property of Joel Mills). Recently there has been debate, about the morality of breeding animals with exaggerated anatomical features that can cause suffering. Prolapse of the eyeball is a medical emergency which requires immediate veterinary treatment. Pekingese need to be brushed several times a week to keep their coat under control. In Practice 18: 315-328, Renwick P (2007) Eyelid surgery in dogs. Brachycephalic head shape has long been thought to be the result of an inherited defect (Stockard 1941). This happens during your dog’s middle-age or older. Stockard (1941) Wistar Institute Monograph. Corneal conditions are most common in dog breeds who have naturally bulging eyes or flattened faces (brachycephalic), such as Bulldogs, Pugs and Shih Tzus. Epiphora may also appear as a reddish-brown spot under the eye. Albino Pekingese (white with pink eyes) should be bred cautiously due to health problems that have been associated with albinism. Methods and prospects for elimination of the problem. Unless successfully treated, the conditions of brachycephalic ocular syndrome lead to constant irritation of the cornea and the surrounding tissues causing prolonged and persistent discomfort and, in some cases, severe pain. However, the soft tissues of the head are not similarly reduced in size. In some cases exposure keratopathy (chronic inflammation of the cornea because the eyelids do not close properly) develops. Siberian Huskies are prone to a host of genetic eye problems like hereditary or juvenile cataracts, corneal dystrophy, and progressive retinal atrophy (PRA). UFAW is grateful to Rosie Godfrey BVetMed MRCVS and David Godfrey BVetMed FRCVS for their work in compiling this section and to Stephanie Kaufman for assistance in illustrating it. The abnormal head shape may lead to other problems also including: lower medial entropion ( inward rotation of the eyelid or eyelid fur which rubs on the eye), nasal fold trichiasis (skin fold and hairs on the nose comes in constant direct contact with the corneas), distichiasis (abnormally placed eyelashes that rub on the eye), poor tear production and/or quality (which means the cornea is more prone to damage as potential abrasive particles that come into contact with it are not washed away), pigmentary keratitis or exposure keratopathy (long term damage to the corneas), and epiphora (tears running onto the face) (Maggs et al 2008). Normally tears drain through a small opening on the inside of each lower eyelid (puncta), via a canal (the tear duct) which carries the tears into the nose. Virtually all Pekingese puppies are born by C-section, birth defects are common, and the puppy mortality rate is high. Even with immediate attention from a skilled veterinary surgeon, the eye may not be able to be secured in the socket again. Elsevier Science Ltd; Edinburgh, Lawson DD (1973) Canine distichiasis. Show off your favorite photos and videos to the world, securely and privately show content to your friends and family, or blog the photos and videos you take with a cameraphone. Currently, identifying individuals that have had surgery may be difficult and, in order to tackle this welfare problem, there appears to be a good case for neutering all animals that require corrective surgery. In Practice 5: 203-206, The Kennel Club (UK) (2008) Pekingese Breed Standard. Stockman M (1983) Inheritable defects of the dog: 3. Surgical and medical treatments can often improve the situation, but are unlikely to result in complete cures. He is well aware that his ancestors were the companions of royalty and he continues to demand the respect such a position entails today. Without surgical treatment brachycephalic ocular syndrome is life-long. Treatment of this complex syndrome requires diagnosis of all the possible underlying causes. Deep corneal ulcers or ruptured eyes are veterinary emergencies. Brachycephalic ocular syndrome is a result of selective breeding for brachycephaly – abnormal, short-muzzled, head shape. (Figures 1 and 2 are property of Rowena Packer, to whom we are grateful for permission to reproduce them here). This leads to corneal irritation and possibly to pigmentary keratitis and ulceration as discussed below. These include Bulldogs, Chow Chows, Shar Pei, Great Danes, Bloodhounds and Mastiff breeds , among others. Eye-lid problems affect many breeds with drooping eyes or loose facial skin. Keeping a Pekingese looking its best requires grooming two to three times a week (or whenever you discover tangles), and it’s important to bathe them occasionally. A life-time of medical treatments (in the form of regular eye drops or ointments) may still be necessary after surgery, in order to try to help protect the vulnerable cornea. It only occurs in the more extreme brachycephalic breeds, due to the excessive nasal skin folds on their short noses and the protrusion of the eyes (Gelatt and Peterson Gelatt 2001), including the Pekingese. The distress shown by dogs with this condition indicates that it is very painful. As far as we are aware, the genetic changes that underlie this inherited defect are not fully understood but at least two genes are thought to be significantly involved. The eyelids seem to disappear behind the globe with the swollen conjunctiva ballooning forward (Mould 1993). A separate polygenic inheritance is suspected for entropion (Gelatt 2007, ACVO Genetics Committee 2007) and some form of genetic inheritance is also suspected for macroblepharon (Rubin 1989, ACVO Genetics Committee 2007). Selection for the distorted, brachycephalic head shape has resulted in the primary anatomical abnormalities that cause brachycephalic ocular syndrome. Pekingese have been deliberately bred to be deformed in two ways – their short legs and long back are chondrodysplastic and their short "pushed-in" face is brachycephalic. The dog in this figure has not yet developed keratitis or other complications as a result of distichiasis. A Pug displaying exophthalmos. With his soft round brown eyes, mane of long straight hair and t… This is another common feature of brachycephalic ocular syndrome. Despite surgery, many affected dogs will need ongoing veterinary attention and eye medication, administration of which for some individuals will also be difficult and distressing. This can lead to ulceration and discomfort. 8. Eye rupture may necessitate the surgical removal of the eye. Opinions differ as to whether it is ethically acceptable to breed animals whose welfare is likely to be compromised. Unfortunately, Pekingeses can inherit or develop a number of different eye conditions, some of which may cause blindness if not treated right away, and most of which can be extremely painful! The latter often has poor pigment and light eyes. Accessed 1.2.11. Probably all Pekingese have this condition to some degree. The brachycephalic dog and cat breeds include: Pugs, English bulldogs, Pekingese, French bulldogs, Lhasa Apsos, Boxers, Shih Tzus, Boston terriers and Persian cats. Pekes are easily distinguishable by their large, bulging eyes. (Maggs et al 2008). In this condition,  abnormal hairs arising from the very corner of the eye (the angle of the eyelids) or the conjunctiva rub on the cornea and cause irritation (Krohne 2008). This is, however, rather unusual and will normally be … Her right eye is blurry and it is hard on her top lid. Brachycephalic ocular syndrome is suspected in any Pekingese showing any of the signs outlined . Chronic dry eye, or keratoconjunctivitis sicca, also affects Pekes. Faceless veterinarian dripping eye drops for pekingese dog, puppy has problems with eyes, vet in blue latex gloves treating. Pekes have very shallow eye sockets and large eyes, which means those eyes may come out easily if the dog sustains an injury to the head. The surface may look uneven. An independent report commissioned by the RSPCA. In this condition, abnormally growing eyelashes touch the surface of the eye (Lawson 1973), leading to irritation of the tissues, conjunctival inflammation, and chronic irritation of the cornea (see below). It is usually caused by excessive facial wrinkling (causing distortion of the tear duct) and/or large, protruding eyes, and can lead to further discomfort through inflammation and infection of the chronically wet skin. Brogdon JD (2005) Corneal Wound Healing. The Pekingese breed is severely brachycephalic. Exophthalmos is abnormal protrusion of the eyeball and in brachycephalic breeds (Bedford and Jones 2001) it is due to the shallowness of the orbits (the bony eye sockets in the skull). Pekingese are additionally at risk of prolapse of the eyeball (exophthalmos – displacement of the eye from its socket) This is because less of the globe of their eye is encased within the eyesocket than is usual , because of the shape of their skull and shallow orbits (eye sockets). Blindness or eye removal are frequent outcomes (although swift appropriate treatment may save the sight). Renwick (1996) found that brachycephalic breeds have a decreased corneal sensitivity, such that affected dogs show less signs of discomfort to these eye conditions compared to other dogs. They also get dry eye, and if untreated, those can become infected. Trichaiasis (lashes growing inwards toward the eyeballs). All brachycephalic dogs have, to a greater or lesser extent, exophthalmos (protruding eyeballs), macropalpebral fissure (an excessively wide opening of the eyelids), lagophthalmia (inability to close the eyelids completely) and limited passive movement of the third eyelid (Maggs et al 2008, Bedford and Jones 2001). The two problems that are common in the Pekingese breed are ulcerations of the eyes and slipped discs. The dog may rub at the face and eyes; a response which is usually regarded as indicating discomfort and irritation. Pigmentary keratitis (pigmented inflammation of the cornea) occurs as a result of chronic irritation of the surface of the eye caused by the skin, eyelid and eye position abnormalities associated with brachycephalic head shape. Methods and prospects for elimination of the problem, http://www.upei.ca/cidd/Diseases/ocular%20disorders/exposure%20keratopathy%20syndrome.htm, www.hungarovet.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/.../chronic-tearstaining.pdf, http://www.animaleyecare.net/diseases/macropalpebral.htm, http://www.the-kennel-club.org.uk/services/public/breeds/watch/display.aspx?breed=Pekingese, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0, Brachycephalic Airway Obstruction Syndrome (BAOS). As far as we are aware, there are no published statistics on the prevalence of the various disease conditions. And while this gives them a distinctive look that many people find very cute, put simply, dogs need muzzles. In brachcephalic breeds this commonly occurs on the lower lid nearest the nose due to the excessive skin wrinkling. Trichiasis from the medial caruncle and conjunctiva. Prolapse of the eyeball is a veterinary emergency that can lead to blindness. In S Petersen-Jones and S Crispin’s Manual of small animal ophthalmology. Eye problems are a constant source of concern for Peke owners. More information can be found in our article on skin problems in flat-faced dogs. The Pekingese eye is subject to more problems than that of most breeds. Dogs affected by this syndrome may show various conformational abnormalities of the eye including exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyes), macropalpebral fissure (an excessively wide opening of the eyelids compared to the size of the eye) and lagophthalmia (inability to close the eyelids completely) (Maggs et al 2008, Bedford and Jones 2001). Figure 3. Common Eye Problems for Pekingese | Pekingese Club The Pekingese are known to have a number of health and medical problems, including a few common eye problems that are discussed in this article. World Small Animal Veterinary Association Conference 2004. Accessed 31.1.11, Gelatt K (2002) Treatment of Orbital Diseases in Small Animals. Brachycephalic ocular syndrome would be suspected in any Pekingese showing any of the signs detailed above. Epiphora may also appear as a reddish-brown spot under the eye. Journal of Small Animal Practice 25: 737-752. Epiphora (tears running onto the face). The most alarming problem with this arrangement is that it’s not uncommon for an eyeball to pop out. The ‘squashed’ pekingese face makes it difficult for these dogs to increase their air intake when they exercise. For further details about this condition, please click on the following: (these link to items down this page). Her eye went back in and thankfully she did not go blind. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009632, Bedford P and Jones G (2001) Abnormal appearance in R Pieffer and S Peterson Jones (Eds) Small animal ophthalmology: a problem oriented approach. Photo about person, medicine, veterinary - 188714606 Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, USA, Startup F (1984) Corneal ulceration in the dog. This problem has varying degrees of severity. How do you know if an animal is a carrier or likely to become affected? Without appropriate treatment, partial or complete blindness is a common consequence of this chronic damage to the eyes. The brachycephalic head shape is one of the examples that has been highlighted (Rooney & Sargan 2008). The breed quickly grew in popularity among her subjects, and ownership of a Pekingese dog became a sign of privilege and wealth across the country. Figure 6. 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